Apomorphine Timeline

Discover how apomorphine cured alcoholics, evolved as a treatment for Parkinson’s Disease, and why it’s being re-investigated as an addiction remedy.

Timeline References & Image Credits

  • 1. Bertol, E. et al. “Nymphaea Cults In Ancient Egypt And The New World: A Lesson In Empirical Pharmacology”. JRSM 97.2 (2004): 84-85. Web.

    2. Emboden, William A. “The Sacred Narcotic Lily Of The Nile: Nymphaea Caerulea”. Economic Botany 32.4 (1978): 395-407. Web.

    3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lotus-eaters.

    4. Pille, T.Lees, A. Stern, G. Erich Harnack (1852 – 1915) And A Short History of Apomorphine. European Neurology 69.6 (2013): 321-324. Web.

    5. Matthiessen, A Researches Into The Chemical Constitution Of The Opium Bases. Part 1. On The Action Of Hydrochloric Acid On Morphia. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 17.0 (1868): 455-4760. Web.

    6. Pearce, J M. Samuel Jones Gee (1839-1911) And Stereotypic Movements Caused By Apomorphie. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 59.3. (1995): 279-279. Web.

    7.Pille, T.Lees, A. Stern, G. Erich Harnack (1852 – 1915) And A Short History of Apomorphine. European Neurology 69.6 (2013): 321-324. Web.

    8. Sharman, DF, Stephens DB. Proceedings: The Effect Of Apomorphine On The Behavior Of Farm Animals. J Physiol. 1974 Oct;242(2):25P-27P.

    9.Beasley, H. The Pocket Formulary, Synopsis of the British & Foreign Pharmacopoeas. J & A Churchill. 1877.

    10.Weil, E. De l’apomorphine dans certain troubles nerveux. Lyon Med 1884;48:411–419

    11.Tompkins, J. Apomorphine In Acute Alcoholic Delirium, Medical Record 1899.

    12.Douglas, J. The New York Medical Journal, p.626. 1899.

    13.Apomorphine As A Hypnotic, The Lancet, April 14. 1900. P. 1083.

    14.Hare, F. On Alcoholism; Its Clinical Aspects and Treatment. 1st ed. London: Churchill; 1912.

    15.Langdon, B. The Practitioners Encyclopedia of Medical Treatment. 1st ed. Oxford University Press; 1915.

    16. XX?

    17.Arnaud, F. Therapeutique Pharmcaologie Matière Médicale. 1st ed. Masson et Cie; 1930.

    18.Choudhury, S. Slaby, J. Condition and Suggest: Narcology’s Therapies. Critical Neuroscience. A Handbook of the Social and Cultural Contexts if Neuroscience. John Wiley & Sons 2011.

    19.Lemere, F. Aversion Treatment of Alcoholism. Some Reminiscences. M.D. British Journal of Addiction. 1987 (82) 257 – 258.

    20.Dent, J. Autobiographical notes. Dent family archive.

    21. Dent, J.Apomorphine in the Treatment of Anxiety States, with Especial Reference to Alcohlism, The British Journal of Inebriety, 1934;32(2).

    22. Dent, J. Autobiographical notes. Dent family archive.

    23. Dent, J.Apomorphine in the Treatment of Anxiety States, with Especial Reference to Alcohlism, The British Journal of Inebriety, 1934;32(2).

    24.Nicholls, J. The Highs and Lows of Drinking in Britain. 2014.
    25.Blocker, JS. Fahey, DF. Tyrrel, IR. Alcohol and Temperance In Modern History, An International Encylopedia.. 2003.

    26.Dent, J. Anxiety and its Treatment. London, J. Murray. 1941.

    27.Dent J. Self Treatment of Anxiety and Craving by Apomorphine Through the Nose. The British Journal of Inebriety. 1944. 41 (2).

    28.Dent J. Apomorphine. Samuel Taylor & Co, 1944.(Medical Press).

    29.Revilliod, H. The Third Kelynack Memorial Lecture. Some Aspects of the Problem of Alcoholism in Switzerland. The British Journal of Addiction, 1950. 47(1)

    30.Moser, J. Prevention of alcohol related problems: An international review of preventive measures, policies and programme. World Health Organisation – 1980 – apps.who.int

    31.Thom, E.W. ‘Alcohol Treatment Policy 1950 – 1990: from alcohol treatment to alcohol problems management’. PhD thesis, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine.1997.

    32. The Alcohol Problem, International Review against Alcoholism. 1947.

    33.Dent, A. Personal communication, recollections of her father John Dent with Rubinstein, A. 2013.

    34.Dent.J.Apomorphine Treatment of Addiction Some Recent Developments. British Journal of Addiction. 1949. 46 (1).

    35.Kragh, H. From Disulfiram to Antabuse: The history of a drug. University of Aarhus, 2008.

    36.Thiesen, H. Conservatism and Social Control Treatment with Disulfiram in Denmark, 1945 – 2005

    37.Martensen Larsen, O. Treatment of Alcoholism With A Sensitising Drug. The Lancet. P.1004.12.25.1948.

    38. REFERENCE NEEDED

    39.Morsier, G. Feldmann, F.The Biological Treatment of Chronic Alcoholism by Apomorphine Study of 150 cases. The British Journal of Addiction.1950.

    40.Word Health Organisation Technical Report Series. No.42. Expert Committee On Mental Health, Report on the First Session of the Acloholsim Subcommittee. Geneva, 11 -16 December 1950. (5). Means of Treatment. Pages 13/14.

    41.Martensen-Larsen O. Five Years Experience with disulfiram in the Treatment of Alcoholism, QJ. Stud Alcohol. 1953 Sep; 14(3):406-18.

    42.Schwab R. Prichard J. An Assessment of Therapy in Parkinson’s Disease. AMA Arch NeurPsych. 1951;65(4):489-501.

    43.Thom, E.W. ‘Alcohol Treatment Policy 1950 – 1990: from alcohol treatment to alcohol problems management’. PhD thesis, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine.1997.

    44. Stormont, R T. Secretary, The American Medical Association. Correspondence to Dent, J. 14.2.1955. Dent family archive.

    45. Bauer, T. Trip to Hell and Back. WSB interviewed in Trax, 1981.

    46.Miles, B. William Burroughs A Life. p.284. 2014.

    47.Burroughs, W. Letter from a Master Addicto to Dangerous Drugs. Britisih Journal of Addiction 53(2) 1957.

    48.Miles, B. William Burroughs A Life, 2014.

    49.Burroughs, W. The Naked Lunch 1962.

    50.Montagu, KA (1957) Catechol compounds in rat tissues and in brains of different animals. Nature 180: 244–245.

    51.Carlsson A, Lindqvist M, Magnusson, T (1957) 3,4- Dihydroxyphenylalanine and 5-hydroxy-tryptophan as reserpine antagonists. Nature 180: 1200.

    52.Halvorsen, KA. Martensen Larsen, O. Apomorphine Revived, Fortified, Prlonged and Improved Therapeutical Effect. Int J Addict.1978 Apr;13(3):475-84.

    53.Martensen-Larsen O. Five Years Experience with disulfiram in the Treatment of Alcoholism, QJ. Stud Alcohol. 1953 Sep; 14(3):406-18.

    54.Halvorsen, KA. Martensen Larsen, O. Apomorphine Revived, 197 Draft copy. Rubinstein Archive.

    55. Dent,J. The British Journal of Addiction 1961 57(2).

    56.Glatt, M. Response to Leon Shirlaw’s letter, 23.11.1986. Alcohol & Alcoholism, Vol.26, No 26. Pg.651-654. 1991.

    57.Moynihan, NH. The Treatment of Alcoholism in General Practice. Practitioner. 1965 Aug;195:223-7.

    58.Ernst, AM., Relation between the action of dopamine and apomorphine and their O-methylated derivatives upon the CNS. Psychopharmacologia. 1965 May 21;7(6):391-9.

    59.Carlsson, A. Interview with Arvid Carlsson by Rubinstein. A. 30.05.2013.

    60.Schlatter, E.K.E. Treatment of alcoholics with apomorphine using Dent’s Method; A Preliminary Stidy. Quebec Psychopharmacological Associaton 08.02.1966.

    61. Cotzias, G. L-Dopa for Parkinsonism. New England Journal of Medicine. 1968. 278 (11): 630.

    62.Schlatter, E.K.E. Treatment of alcoholics with apomorphine using Dent’s method; a preliminary study. Psycho-Pharacological Association. 8.2.1966.

    63.Schlatter, E.K.E. Lal, S. Treatment of Alcoholics with Dent’s Apomorphine Method.1972.

    64.Tallberg, A. Work and results in a minor alcohol clinic outside Stockholm. 20th International Institute on the Prevention and Treatment of Alcoholism. Manchester. England, June 24-28, 1974.

    65.Personal communication, Hore. B.D, (Manchester conference organizer,1974) with Rubinstein A. 19.04.2017.

    66.Beil, H. The Treatment of Multiple Drug Dependence and Alcoholism with Apomorphine. Zusammengestellt und herausgegeben von Hanwilhelm Beil. Hamburg 1976.

    67.Beil,H, Trojan, A. The use of apomorphine in the treatment of alcoholism and other addictions: results of a general practitioner. Br J Addict Alcohol Other Drugs. 1977 Jun;72(2):129-34.

    68.Carlsson,C. Johansson, PR. Gullberg, B. A double-blind cross-over study: apomorphine/placebo in chronic alcoholics. Int J Clin Pharmacol Biopharm. 1977 May;15(5):211-3.

    69.Beil, H. Present Status of the Treatment of Alcohol Addicts with Apomorphine. 32nd International Congress on Alcoholism and Drug Depdendent. 1978. Warsaw.

    70.Madden JS. A Guide to Alcohol and Drug Dependence. 1979.

    71. Lees, AJ. Personal communication, email correspondence with Rubinstein, A. 2016.

    72.Lees AJ. Mentored by a Madman: The William Burroughs Experiment. 2016.

    73.Anokhina, A. Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Research 13. U.S.S.R. British Journal of Addiction.1987.

    74.Di Chiara, G. Imperato, A. Drugs abused by humans preferentially increase synaptic dopamine concentrations in the mesolimbic system of freely moving rats. 1988 Jul;85(14):5274-8.

    75.Lees, AJ. Mentored by a Madman: The William Burroughs Experiment. 2016.

    76.Letter from Edwards, G. to Sweeney, J and Rubinstein, A.L..23.10.1990. Dent family archive.

    77.Volkow, N. Wang, G. Doria. J. Monitoring the Brain’s Response to Alcohol With Positron Emission Tomography. 1995.

    78. Martensen Larsen, O. private correspondence with Dent, A. 18.10.90. Dent family archive.

    79.Schellekens, AF. van Oosterwijck, AW, Ellenbroek B, de Jong CA, Buitelaar JK, Cools L, Verkes RJ. The dopamine agonist apomorphine differentially affects cognitive performance in alcohol dependent patients and healthy controls. 2008.

    80.Riddell P. I Was An Alcoholic The Story of A Cure. Victor Gollancz 1955.

    81.Tallberg, A, Work and results in a minor alcohol clinic outside Stockholm. The Treatment of Multiple Drug Dependence and Alcoholism with Apomorphine, 1976.

    82. Klee, EW. Personal communication, interview with Rubinstein A.2016.

    83.Morales-Rosado, JA., Cousin Margot, A., Ebbert Jon, O. Klee, EW. A Critical Review of Repurposing Apomorphine for Smoking Cessation. ASSAY and Drug Development Technologies. December 2015, 13(10): 612-622.

    84. Personal communication, emails between Nutt, DJ. Mulfano, MR and Rubinstein, A. 2016.

  • Image Credits

    Title Slide
    © akg-images

    Circa 1300 BC
    Nymphaea Caerulea
    By Louis van Houtte (1810-1876) (editor) (http://www.botanicus.org/page/1430839) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

    8 BC
    The Lotus Eaters
    See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

    1845
    Adolf Edvard Arppe
    By C. A. Hårdh [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

    1869
    A meeting at The Royal Society
    Antonia Rubinstein

    1869
    Charles Alder Wright
    Image courtesy of Wellcome Library, London

    1912
    Beckenham Place Park, location of Hare’s sanatorium
    © Copyright I M Chengappa and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons Licence

    1944
    By F. Conrad (old poster) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

    1946
    By Agriculture And Stock Department, Publicity Branch [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

    1947
    Dr. Oluf Martensen-Larsen of Copenhagen
    Copyright University of Southern California

    1948
    By San Diego Air & Space Museum Archives [No restrictions], via Wikimedia Commons

    1950
    By US Navy [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

    1951
    Robert S. Schwab
    Image courtesy of U.S. National Library of Medicine

    1970
    Tremors produced by Parkinson’s disease
    Image courtesy of Creative Commons/Lu Yang’s artworks

    1990
    Andrew Lees
    By AndrewleesOwn work, CC BY-SA 3.0, Link

    2000
    Arvid Carlsson
    By VoglerOwn work, CC BY-SA 3.0, Link

    2011
    By Doc. RNDr. Josef Reischig, CSc. – Archiv autora, CC BY 3.0, Link

Website Credits & Acknowledgements

  • Antonia Rubinstein
    Luke Ridley

  • Tamsin and David at David Preston Studio

  • Mary Gore Booth

  • Many thanks to the following for their invaluable contribution:

    Rose Abdalla
    Angela Attwood 
    Birgitte Bagger-Skjøt
    Søren Buus Jensen
    Professor Arvid Carlsson
    Dr. Carl Carlsson
    Kyle Cathie
    Nils Dræbye
    Carole Feldmann
    Anne-Lise Gøtzsche
    Thomas Grhøndahl
    Sten Roger Kalla
    Dr. Erik Klee
    Professor Andrew Lees
    Dr. Charlie Lowe
    Ralph Lucas
    Annette Martensen Larsen
    Katie Macmillan
    Professor Marcus Munafo
    Professor David Nutt
    Jamie Priestley
    David Preston
    Tamsin Preston
    Adam Ridley
    Luke Ridley
    John Rubinstein
    Professor Jørgen Scheel-Krüger
    Stephen Koch
    Society for the Study of Addiction
    Warwick Sweeney
    Matts Tallberg
    Professor Alf Trojen
    Wellcome Collection
    Wikie-Commons
    Jeffrey Posternak
    The Wylie Agency LLC